Visual navigation means are necessary for visual flight. Takeoff and landing are impossible without visual observation.
Visual navigation means are as follows:
- Non-illuminating objects at daytime (checkpoints)
-Self-illuminating objects at nighttime (lightings)
• Lightning equipment is lights and set of lights located on the airdrome territory, used for air traffic.
• Lightning equipment is essential part of navigation. It is a complex of systems and sub-systems that assist air vessels in landing and taking off at airstrip as well as moving around the airdrome in right directions. Certain type of lightning show marks and checkpoints to air vessels that fly on the route.
• Lightning equipment is used for visual and instrumental flights.
• Lighting equipment is used at any time during a day or night, as needed.
• Lightning equipment is used in low visibility conditions and at night, in any condition.
• Some sub-systems of lightning are used during the day in any visibility, e.g. PAPI lighting system.
The rules of organization and usage of visual navigation means in civil aviation are regulated by ICAO via standards and recommended practice annexes as well as other ICAO documents. Lightning technic means are organized by Technical Regulations provided by the order of the Georgian government dated by the 16th of February, 2018.